Participation in physical education and sport

Nike/Youth Sport Trust have been working together developing a project aimed at encouraging more secondary school aged girls to take part in PE and sport. From this they have developed the 'Girls in Sport' programme which is supported by the Government. Training and materials will be provided to teachers to help transform teaching styles and PE activities to ensure that girls have a more positive experience of sport and this will lead to the obvious social and health benefits for the women of tomorrow. For more information contact the Youth Sport Trust on or visit their website at

The WSF Information Pack has 10 fact sheets on a range of topics which include participation; women employed in sport, women & coaching, and girls participation in PE. See the 'Publications' page for further information.

Sportscoach UK works in partnership with local authorities and governing bodies of sport to encourage the recruitment and development of women into coaching. Together with WSF and the four sports of Football, Rugby Union and League and Cricket the Women into High Performance Coaching programme has been launched. See our home page for more details. Sportscoach UK can be contacted on or via their website

The following publications should be available from the British Library via your local library.

Campbell K (1996)
Woman's realm, Leisure Management, 16(5) pp28-30
Article examining how women's needs and preferences can be taken into account in the provision of sports facilities so as to maximise participation.

Corbett D R (1997)
Sport and Physical Activity, Olympic Review, Jun/Jul 1997 (15) pp31-37.
Discusses the growth in participation of women in sport and the impact on health and physical strength. Explores the positive effects of improved self-esteem and self-determination as well as the myths that surround women and physical activity.

Defrantz A (1995)
The Olympic Games and Women, Olympic Review Oct/Nov (5) pp56-58
A brief history of women's participation in the Olympic Games including tables of women's participation levels from the beginning of the modern Olympic Games to the present.

Fazey D & Ballington N (1992)
Adult female participation in physical activity, perception of competence and attitude towards the participation motives of other women, Physical Education Review, 15 (1) pp53-60.
Reviews constraints on female participation, motor competence as a factor in participation and importance of perceived competence, then tests a hypothesis against an attitudinal survey.

Gratton & Tice (1994)
Trends in sports participation in Britain: 1977-1987, Leisure Studies, 13 pp49-66.
Secondary analysis of the General Household Survey an annual household survey of 20,000 UK residents which includes questions on sport and recreation every three years. Includes analysis of female participation.

Greendorfer S, Sabo D & Messner M A (1993)
Women in Sport. Issues and Controversies, Sage, London
A collection of papers offering an overview of current issues affecting women in sport.

Hargreaves J (1990)
Changing images of the sporting female, Sport and Leisure, 31 (5) pp 39-40.
The concluding article in the review of the social history of women and sport, which looks at whether the development and growth of women's participation in sport has been entirely beneficial.

Hartmann-Tews (1994)
Women's participation in sport: cross-cultural consistencies and variations, Journal of Comparative Physical Education and Sport, (2) pp42-49
Compares women's participation in sport in Germany, France and England and looks at the qualitative differences in this participation.

Kluka D A (1993)
Women, sport and position, Olympic Review, May 307 pp199-203.
Charts the history of women's involvement in the Olympic movement.

Pfister G (1994)
Women's participation in sports and the Olympic Games in Germany and Norway - a sociohistorical analysis, Journal of Comparative Physical Education, (2) pp30-41.
Comparative analysis covering the period 1908 to 1968.

Romero A (1993)
Women at the Games in Olympia? Olympic Review, Jun 308 pp262-263.
Investigates the participation of women in the ancient Olympic Games.

Samuel N (1996)
Women, Leisure and the Family in Contemporary Society: a multinational perspective, Cab International, Wallingford.
A collection of papers on women, leisure and family life in countries from Australia and Canada to France, Japan, Italy, Spain, the UK, Colombia, Morocco, Greece, Israel, India, Malaysia, and Hong Kong.

Sports Council (1989)
Bringing Women into Sport, Sports Council, London.
Describes the levels of women's participation in sport and examines popular prejudices which deter other women.

Sports Council For Wales (1995)
Changing the rules: women, girls and sport, Sports Council for Wales, Cardiff
A report on the levels of participation in sport among girls and women in Wales.

Stefan M D (1997)
A New Dimension, Olympic Review, Jun/Jul 1997 (15) pp22-25.
Reviews the development of women's participation in sport, concentrating on the situation in the United States. Provides data on the number of girls playing sport, new women's sports on the Olympic programme and the ten most popular high school fitness programmes for girls.

Thompson A (1992)
Women in league, Sport and Leisure, Jan/Feb pp22-23.
Outlines the history and structure of women's rugby league. Discusses barriers to participation - not least the image of the game.

Womens Sports Foundation

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